De facto ocean sanctuaries? Author Bob Berwyn writes about how Mediterranean Wind Farms, in place since 2008 have performed in oceanic conditions:
Some scientists have described these zones as de facto marine sanctuaries because fishing is often limited directly around the turbines.
Off the Scandinavian coast, scientist have watched some of the underwater turbine foundations gradually transform into artificial reefs, attracting mollusks and small fish that feed on plankton. This magnet effect goes right up the food chain to larger fish, seals and dolphins.
Seafloor ecosystems may even be recovering in areas where fishermen have "pulverized" the seabed by dragging heavy nets along the seafloor for 100 years, said Jason Hall-Spencer, a marine biologist at the University of Plymouth.
Offshore wind developers along the US East Coast, for instance, are able to better protect endangered whales because research in the North Sea shows that construction noise temporarily displaces some fish and marine mammals; so they're now timing building to avoid affecting those species when they are in the area, said Greer Ryan, a sustainability researcher with the Arizona-based Center for Biological Diversity.
The impact of offshore wind farms should also be considered on the much larger scale of the ocean, said Hall-Spencer."The footprint is minimal compared to the vast area of the sea. The impacts are very localized and small, especially compared to the effects of fishing or warming of the oceans," he said.
Reef Life teams presented these at the UN Ocean Conference and they are a part of our #OceanAction15440 Commitment @GlobalGoalsUN
MIT Technology Backup for Windfarm Upgrades to Marine Life: tp://econ.st/2As2h1N
How are offshore wind farms, and the new colonies of blue mussels they support, changing the oceans? Today we get an answer thanks to the work of Kaela Slavik at the Helmholtz Centre for Materials and Coastal Research in Germany and a few pals, who have investigated the impact of offshore wind power on marine ecosystems for the first time. Their conclusions are stark—they say offshore wind platforms are changing the nature of marine ecosystems in complex, unanticipated, and beneficial ways.
The global shift to renewable energy is well underway, including large-scale deployment of offshore wind farms. There are already about 3,600 turbines operating along European coasts, with 14 more wind farms under development.
Even more wind energy is needed to meet the goals of the Paris climate agreement — but the push to boost European offshore wind power 40-fold by 2030 will change regional ocean ecosystems in profound and unexpected ways, according to researchers studying how the turbines affect the environment.
Most of the research stems from northern Europe, where offshore turbines have been operating since 1991. Scientists say this research can help shape plans for deploying offshore wind turbines in other parts of the world.
A recent study on the Mediterranean identified wind energy and wildlife hotspots, based partly on lessons learned in northern Europe. The science is also useful in places like Japan and the United States, where a boom in the development of offshore wind energy appears imminent.
Worlds Cheapest SOLAR is Wind??? See link above for pricing analytics including the sale price of energy created.
Author Bob Berwyn Made For Minds Date 22.11.2017 See entire Story LINK:
Cornell University Library: The large scale impact of offshore windfarm structures on pelagic primary production in the southern North Sea LINK below:
MIT Technology Review Below Ocean Impact Windfarms:
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