Coral Loss

This magnificent photograph was graciously provided by The Ocean Agency, whose global efforts we so admire as they are shedding light on the true dynamic of what is happening below the surface, assisting ALL of us in this fight to help the oceans survive--  http://www.theoceanagency.org/   XL Catlin Seaview Survey

Around the world, coral reefs face a wide and intensifying array of threats resulting in damage and disease, including impacts from:

 

  • Coral bleaching 

  • Ocean acidification

  • Heavy metals, toxic runoff

  • Destructive fishing

  • Coastal development

  • Invasive species 

  • Damage from marine recreation 

  • Cyclones, hurricanes, strong wave impact

 

 

The world’s oceans – their temperature, chemistry, currents and life – drive global systems that make the Earth habitable for humankind. Reef Life Nanoscience brings completely NEW possibilities to the oceanic environment.

  • Oceans cover three quarters of the Earth’s surface, contain 97 per cent of the Earth’s water, and represent 99 per cent of the living space on the planet by volume

  • Over three billion people depend on marine and coastal biodiversity for their livelihoods

  • Globally, the market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at $3 trillion per year or about 5 per cent of global GDP

  • Oceans contain nearly 200,000 identified species, but actual numbers may lie in the millions

  • Oceans absorb about 30 per cent of carbon dioxide produced by humans, buffering the impacts of global warming

  • Oceans serve as the world’s largest source of protein, with more than 3 billion people depending on the oceans as their primary source of protein

  • Marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people

  • Subsidies for fishing are contributing to the rapid depletion of many fish species and are preventing efforts to save and restore global fisheries and related jobs, causing ocean fisheries to generate US$ 50 billion less per year than they could

  • As much as 40 per cent of the world oceans are heavily affected by human activities, including pollution, depleted fisheries, and loss of coastal habitats

What is coral bleaching?

Corals, that make structures we call reefs, are comprised of two partner organisms: an animal (coral) and a unicellular photosynthetic algae (dinoflagellate). The interaction whereby two different organisms live together for mutual benefit is called symbiosis. In this symbiosis, coral (the animal) provides protection and raw materials for photosynthesis while photosynthetic algae produces food. This enables both partners to grow and reproduce. The beautiful colour we see in coral comes from the photosynthetic algae because they have pigment that makes them colourful.

Coral bleaching is the disappearance of the coral’s colour, revealing the white coral skeleton. It occurs due to either the breakdown of symbiosis between coral and photosynthetic algal cells or the degradation of photosynthetic pigments of photosynthetic alga cells. This occurs as a result of stressful conditions caused by, in most cases, high temperatures.

Therefore, major coral bleaching events occur during high sea surface temperatures associated with El Nino – a warm extreme weather pattern. But other factors such as cold conditions, elevated solar radiations and pollution have been found to cause minor coral bleaching at local scale.

 

http://gordon.science.oregonstate.edu/science-mpa/

NEW Maps Above of Marine Protected Areas

 

Reef Life Restoration is addressing the issues facing the coral reefs through our unique composite mixtures, which create the proper pH climates reefs require to thrive. Reef Life has attractants for corallivorous starfish and other marine predators to bring them from the healthy reefs to our engineered reef systems for removal. 

 

Wave and storm surge barriers can be placed where corals are threatened by hurricane winds, protecting coastal regions. These barriers also serve as boat anchoring elements, dive sculpture, and fish incubation sites. The latest innovation is a heavy metal and industrial toxin-absorbing "Filtration Fence."

 

Reef Life Massive Reef acreage deployment and structure design methods are based upon Kenematics for vastly increased reef sections per barge. Neither cranes nor hoists are necessary to get the engineered reef structures into the water or in place at ocean floor.

More information and the latest reef news can be found on the following websites:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-01/uomr-nrp010417.php

http://www.ecowatch.com/coral-reef-bleaching-2194496268.html?utm_content=buffer48d06&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

http://www.chasingcoral.com/about-the-film/

http://www.cnn.com/videos/world/2016/12/08/vanishing-sixth-mass-extinction-madagascar-coral-bleaching-sutter-mg-orig.cnn

http://catlinseaviewsurvey.com/science/coral-reefs

https://www.mission-blue.org/

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/21/science/coral-reproduction-survival.html?_r=0

http://www.fishforward.eu/en/wwf-report-uncertain-future-forecast-for-millions-of-people-who-depend-on-fish-for-protein/

http://www.theoceanagency.org/

http://www.oceanhealthindex.org/news/Marine_Tourism​

http://www.icriforum.org/gcrmn   Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN)

http://www.vox.com/2016/5/31/11818394/great-barrier-reef-bleaching-dying

http://www.worldwatch.org/node/5960

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/coral

http://www.iucn.org/theme/marine-and-polar/get-involved/coral-reefs

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-australia-environment-idUSKCN0YZ0DR

 

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